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Technical Guides - Speed of Sound in Sea-Water


  1. C-T. Chen and F.J. Millero, Speed of sound in seawater at high pressures (1977) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62(5) pp 1129-1135
  2. A.B. Coppens, Simple equations for the speed of sound in Neptunian waters (1981) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69(3), pp 862-863
  3. V.A. Del Grosso, New equation for the speed of sound in natural waters (with comparisons to other equations) (1974) J. Acoust. Soc. Am 56(4) pp 1084-1091
  4. B.D. Dushaw, P.F. Worcester, B.D. Cornuelle and B.M. Howe, On equations for the speed of sound in sea water (1993) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93(1) pp 255-275
  5. N.P. Fofonoff and R.C. Millard Jr. Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater (1983), UNESCO technical papers in marine science. No. 44, Division of Marine Sciences. UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris.
  6. C. C. Leroy and F Parthiot, Depth-pressure relationship in the oceans and seas (1998) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103(3) pp 1346-1352
  7. K.V. Mackenzie, Nine-term equation for the sound speed in the oceans (1981) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(3), pp 807-812
  8. C.S. Meinen and D.R. Watts, Further evidence that the sound-speed algorithm of Del Grosso is more accurate than that of Chen and Millero (1997) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(4) pp 2058-2062
  9. F.J. Millero and Xu Li, Comments on "On equations for the speed of sound in seawater" (1994), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95(5), pp 2757-2759
  10. J.M. Pike and F.L. Beiboer, A comparison between algorithms for the speed of sound in seawater (1993) The Hydrographic Society, Special Publication no. 34
  11. J.L. Speisberger and K. Metzger, New estimates of sound speed in water (1991a) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89(4) pp 1697-1700
  12. J.L. Speisberger and K. Metzger, A new algorithm for sound speed in seawater (1991b) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89(6) pp 2677-2687
  13. J.L. Speisberger, Is Del Grosso's sound-speed algorithm correct ? (1993) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93(4) pp 2235-2237
  14. G.S.K. Wong and S Zhu, Speed of sound in seawater as a function of salinity, temperature and pressure (1995) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97(3) pp 1732-1736

Any comments or suggestions about further speed of sound equations?

Please contact Stephen Robinson